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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I L M N O P S T V



A
acute
Pronunciation: ( a-kyut' )
Referring to a disease of sudden onset and brief course, not chronic, sometimes loosely used to mean severe.
albumin
See serum albumin
ascites
Pronunciation: ( a-si'tez )
Effusion and accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity. May be a complication of cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, malignancy, peritonitis.
autologous
Pronunciation: ( aw-tol'o-gus )
Referring to a graft in which the donor and recipient areas are in the same person.
B
bile acids
Pronunciation: ( bil as'idz )
Steroid acids found in bile. Their physiologic roles include but not limited fat emulsification.
bile duct
Pronunciation: ( bil dukt )
Any of the ducts conveying bile between the liver and the intestine, including hepatic, cystic, and common bile duct. Syn: biliary duct
biliary
Pronunciation: ( bil'e-ar-e )
Relating to bile or the biliary tract.
biliary duct
Pronunciation: ( bil'e-ar-e dukt )
Syn: bile duct
biliary ductules
Pronunciation: ( bil'e-ar-e duk'tyulz )
The excretory ducts of the liver that connect the interlobular ductules to the right or left hepatic duct.
bilirubin
Pronunciation: ( bil-i-ru'bin )
The predominant pigment of human bile, formed from hemoglobin during normal and abnormal destruction of erythrocytes. Excess levels of bilirubin are associated with jaundice. See total bilirubin level
C
carcinoma
Pronunciation: ( kar-si-no'ma )
A malignant tumor. See hepatocellular carcinoma
Child-Turcote-Pugh (CTP) score
A scoring system for liver function based on the presence of encephalopathy and/or ascites, and laboratory measures of bilirubin, albumin, and prothrombin time; this scoring system was used prior to implementation of the MELD scoring system
chole-
Combining form indicating bile.
cholestasis
Pronunciation: ( ko-les'ta-sis )
Stagnation of the bile
See intrahepatic cholestasis
chronic
Pronunciation: ( kron'ik )
Term used to describe persistent disease or illness.
cirrhosis
Pronunciation: ( sir-ro'sis )
End stage liver disease characterized by diffuse damage to hepatic parenchymal cells, with nodular regeneration, fibrosis, and disturbance of normal architecture; associated with failure in the function of hepatic cells and interference with blood flow in the liver, frequently resulting in jaundice, portal hypertension, ascites, and ultimately biochemical and functional signs of hepatic failure. Origin: Greek Kirrhos = orange yellow
cirrhotic
Pronunciation: ( sir-rot'ik )
Relating to or affected with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis.
cryopreservation
Pronunciation: ( kri'o-pre-ser-va'shun )
Maintenance of the viability of cells or excised tissues or organs at extremely low temperatures.
cryptogenic
Pronunciation: ( krip-to-jen'ik )
Of obscure, indeterminate etiology or origin.
cryptogenic cirrhosis
Liver cirrhosis of obscure, indeterminate origin
E
edema
Pronunciation: ( e-de'ma ) ( e-de'ma )
An accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities.
encephalopathy
Pronunciation: ( en-sef-a-lop' a-the )
See hepatic encephalopathy
esophageal varices
Pronunciation: ( e-sof'a-je'al var'i-ses )
are extreme dilations of sub-mucosal veins in the mucosa of the esophagus in diseases featuring portal hypertension, secondary to cirrhosis primarily; they are liable to ulceration and massive bleeding.
esophageal
Pronunciation: ( e-sof'a-je'al, e'so-faj'e-al )
Relating to the esophagus.
esophagus
Pronunciation: ( e-sof'a-gus )
The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus), or gullet is the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach.
F
fatty liver
Pronunciation: ( fat'e liv'er )
Yellow discoloration of the liver due to fatty degeneration of liver parenchymal cells.
fibrosis
Pronunciation: ( fi-bro'sis )
Formation of fibrous tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue.
fibrosis hepatic
Hepatic fibrosis refers to the accumulation of interstitial (intercellular, extracellular) or 'scar' extracellular matrix after either acute or chronic liver injury.
G
gastric varices
are dilated submucosal veins in the stomach. Gastric varices are typically induced by portal hypertension, which is commonly a consequence of cirrhosis. Other causes include thrombosis of intra-abdominal vessels, complications of pancreatitis, and intra-abdominal tumors
gastrointestinal
Pronunciation: ( gas'tro-in-tes'ti-nal )
Relating to the stomach and intestines.
H
hemorrhage
Pronunciation: ( hem'o-raj )
An escape of blood through ruptured or unruptured vessel walls.
hepatectomy
Pronunciation: ( hep-a-tek'to-me )
Removal of the liver, whole or in part.
hepatic
Pronunciation: ( he-pat'ik )
Relating to the liver.
hepatic encephalopathy
condition usually occurring secondarily to advanced liver disease, marked by disturbances of consciousness with may progress to deep coma (hepatic coma), psychiatric changes of varying degree, flapping tremor and fetor hepaticas. Also called portal-systemic encephalopathy.
hepatic portal system
A group of veins that carry blood from the capillaries of the stomach, intestine, spleen, and pancreas to the sinusoids of the liver
hepatitis
Pronunciation: ( hep-a-ti'tis )
Inflammation of the liver; usually from a viral infection, but sometimes from toxic agents.
hepatitis B
Pronunciation: ( hep-a-ti'tis )
A viral hepatitis caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (Hepatitis B virus) that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted especially by contact with infected blood (as by transfusion or by sharing contaminated needles in illicit intravenous drug use) or by contact with other infected bodily fluids (as semen). syn: viral hepatitis type B
hepatitis C
Pronunciation: ( hep-a-ti'tis )
A viral hepatitis caused by a single-stranded RNA virus (Hepatitis C virus), usually mild but often progressing to a chronic stage; the most prevalent type of posttransfusion hepatitis. syn: viral hepatitis type C
hepatoblast
Pronunciation: ( hep'a-to-blast )
Progenitor cell of hepatocyte. Hepatoblasts may proliferate in vitro (in cell culture) in contrast to hepatocytes.
hepatocellular
Pronunciation: ( hep'a-to-sel'yu-lar )
Of or involving hepatocytes. See hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular necrosis
hepatocellular carcinoma
Pronunciation: ( hep'a-to-sel'yu-lar kar-si-no'ma )
Carcinoma derived from liver cells. Syn: malignant hepatoma
hepatocellular necrosis
Pronunciation: ( hep'a-to-sel'yu-lar ne-kro'sis )
Pathologic death of one parenchymal liver cells (a portion of liver tissue), resulting from irreversible damage and accompanying with inflammation.
hepatocyte
Pronunciation: ( hep'a-to-sit )
A parenchymal liver cell. Called also hepatic cell, liver cell
hepatoma
Pronunciation: ( hep-a-to'ma )
Carcinoma derived from liver cells. A better term to use is hepatocarcinoma or hepatocellular carcinoma.
hepatosteatosis
Fatty degeneration of parenchymal liver tissue.
hypertension
Pronunciation: ( hi'per-ten'shun )
See portal hypertension
I
immunosuppression
Pronunciation: ( im'yu-no-su-presh'un )
Prevention or interference with the development of immunologic response; may reflect natural immunologic unresponsiveness (tolerance), may be artificially induced by chemical, biologic, or physical agents, or may be caused by disease.
interferon
Pronunciation: ( in-ter-fer'on )
A class of small protein produced by T cells, fibroblasts, and other cells in response to viral infection and other biologic and synthetic stimuli. Interferons are divided into five major classes (alpha, beta, gamma, tau, and omega).
interstitial
Pronunciation: ( in'ter-stish'al )
Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space. Used especially of fibrous tissue; interstitial fibrosis. See fibrosis hepatic
intrahepatic cholestasis
Stagnation of the bile within the liver
L
lipotoxicity
lipid-induced cellular injury
liver
Pronunciation: ( liv'er )
The largest gland of the body, it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1-2 kg, or about 1/40 the weight of the body. It secretes bile and is also of great importance in both carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
liver cell transplantation
Liver cell transplantation is a procedure, consisting of infusing hepatocytes or hepatoblasts in the portal system of the recipient. It aims to bridge unstable patients to transplantation, allow bridge to recovery in advanced liver disease, and correct inborn errors of liver metabolism.
liver transplantation
is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver allograft.
M
malignant hepatoma
Pronunciation: ( ma-lig'nant hep-a-to'ma )
A carcinoma derived from parenchymal cells of the liver. Syn: hepatocellular carcinoma. Syn: hepatocarcinoma
MELD
A scoring system for liver function. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) uses 3 easily obtainable lab values (serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, and prothrombin time i.e., INR) to generate a "score" as a means of predicting a 3-month mortality risk. The higher the MELD score, the higher the risk of death, and the higher the patient's place on the transplant list.
mucosa
Pronunciation: ( myu-ko'sa )
A mucous tissue lining various tubular structures.
N
necroinflammation
Liver necroinflammation - process of pathologic death of liver parenchymal cells accompanying with inflammatory process that leads to fibrosis and progression to cirrhosis. Liver fibrosis and necroinflammation may be assessed by the Ishak scoring system. See hepatocellular necrosis
necrosis
Pronunciation: ( ne-kro'sis )
Pathologic death of one or more cells, or of a portion of tissue or organ, resulting from irreversible damage and accompanying with inflammation. See hepatocellular necrosis, liver necroinflammation
necrotizing
changes indicative of cell death caused by progressive deteriorating action of enzymes, affecting groups of cells or part of a structure or organ.
O
orthotopic
Pronunciation: ( or-tho-top'ik )
In the normal or usual position. Refers to placement of the donor liver in its correct anatomic location. orthotopic liver transplantation
P
parenchyma
Pronunciation: ( pa-reng'ki-ma )
The distinguishing or specific cells of a gland or organ, contained in and supported by the connective tissue framework, or stroma. Hepatocytes are parenchymal cells of the liver.
portal
Pronunciation: ( por'tal )
Relating to any porta or hilus, specifically to the porta hepatis and the portal vein. See hepatic portal system
portal hypertension
Pronunciation: ( por'tal hi'per-ten'shun )
Elevation of pressure in the hepatic portal system caused by cirrhosis or other fibrotic change in liver tissue. These change results in venous obstruction and/or vasoconstriction that produces splenomegaly and ascites in its later stages.
When pressure exceeds 10 mm Hg, a collateral circulation may develop to maintain venous return from structures drained by the portal vein; engorgement of collateral veins can lead to esophageal varices.
portal system
A system of veins that begins and ends in capillaries. See hepatic portal system
primary liver cancer
Tumor which originates from parenchymal liver cells
proliferation
Pronunciation: ( pro-lif-e-ra'shun )
Growth and reproduction of similar cells.
prothrombin time
Pronunciation: ( pro-throm'bin )
A test of clotting time made by determining the time for clotting to occur after thromboplastin and calcium are added to decalcified plasma.
S
serum albumin
Pronunciation: ( ser'um al-byu'min )
The principal protein in plasma, present in blood plasma and in serous fluids. Participates in transport of different substances and helps regulate the osmotic pressure of blood. Low levels of albumin in blood plasma are associated with a pathologic condition of the liver.
splenomegaly
Pronunciation: ( sple-no-meg'a-le, sple-no-me-ga'le-a )
Enlargement of the spleen. splenomegalia
stasis
Pronunciation: ( sta'sis, stas'is )
Stagnation of the blood or other fluids. See intrahepatic cholestasis
steatosis
Pronunciation: ( ste-a-to'sis )
Fatty degeneration. See hepatosteatosis, fatty liver
stellate cell
Pronunciation: ( stel'at sel )
A star-shaped cell that has many filaments extending radially.
T
total bilirubin level
Total serum bilirubin may be increased in cirrhosis of the liver and acute viral hepatitis.
V
variceal
Pronunciation: ( var-i-se'al, va-ris'e-al )
Of or pertaining to a varix.
varix
Pronunciation: ( var'iks, var'i-sez )
A dilated vein; an enlarged and tortuous vein
Pl. varices - dilated veins. Types of varices include:

 

 

 

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Institute of Longevity and Preventive Medicine